I usually focus on the creative development possible through fair dealing or fair use; those downstream uses of copyrighted work that facilitate research and learning, or, transformative uses that produce new works. However, there is another element of individual use that deserves attention. The arguably legitimate activities of time and format shifting carried out through private copying. We should not forget that economic prosperity, on a national scale, can be facilitated through these individual activities.
Last week I drew attention to the work of Consumers International (CI); I noted that their current IP Watchlist indicates that Malaysia, Japan, and the United Kingdom are considering implementing fair use within their domestic copyright laws. In a separate report, Access to Knowledge for Consumers – Reports of Campaigns and Research 2008-2010, is a chapter concerning Israeli copyright law and its implementation of fair use in 2007. The chapter, written by Dr. Nimrod Kozlovski, Jonathan J. Klinger, Uria Yarkoni and Nati Davidi, gives an apt summary of the history of Israeli copyright law and related ongoing activity.
The authors position fair use as part and parcel of Israel’s innovative potential. The advantage of protecting consumer rights is that individuals have the certainty to engage in business with others with productive gain for all:
We can see that in a series of cases, the Israeli courts favoured the free markets and competition over property rights, with the understanding that as innovation comes, there will be more welfare (p.177).
In terms of Israel’s progress, fair use is considered essential to achieve free markets and free competition.
This is a perspective that Ireland is now willing to consider. As was reported by John Kennedy on May 9, 2011, the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Innovation is seeking submissions concerning copyright. According to the department’s website:
There is a perception in certain industries that national copyright legislation does not cater well for the digital environment and actually creates barriers to innovation and the development of new business models.
The terms of reference for this review of copyright include, “Examine the US style ‘fair use’ doctrine to see if it would be appropriate in an Irish/EU context.” Interestingly enough, the terms also state that if suitable changes are not possible under the current constraints of EU copyright directives, Ireland will make recommendations for changes to those EU directives.
The United States is the foremost example of the creative development that can be fostered by maintaining flexible limits on copyright’s mandate. A point exemplified and emphasized by Google; two years ago the company called on the U.K. government to adopt fair use, and, two months ago followed it up by giving that same government a submission detailing the importance of fair use:
[Fair Use’s] flexibility has enabled it to protect both creative cultural output, such as parody or news commentary, and technological innovation built on digital copying. … Fair use is regularly referred to as the key tool by which the US fosters innovation … And the proof is in the pudding: no country in the world can compete with the U.S. for the most innovative search technologies, social networks, video and music hosting platform, and for the sheer generation of the most jobs and wealth in the Internet domain. If one is looking for evidence of how innovation succeeds, the best way is to look at those places where innovation has succeeded (see Section 4.2).
A more in-depth analysis of fair use as a catalyst for American innovation can be found in Fair Use As Innovation Policy (2008), by Fred von Lohmann (Senior Intellectual Property Attorney with the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and Lecturer at Stanford Law School.) He observes that the more noble aspects of unauthorized use of copyrighted material are easily and often defended – i.e., fair use preserves freedom of expression and fair use upholds the time-honoured process of creating something new by building on something old. But Lohmann focuses on the act of private copying with the reminder that until 1998 the U.S. followed a mantra of “innovate broadly first, regulate narrowly later (p.25)”. Those innovations took form in popular consumer technologies which depended on the legitimacy of allowing individuals to engage in private copying. Lohmann concludes: “From this observation grows the corollary that the fair use doctrine may well be playing an increasingly critical role in U.S. innovation policy (p.36).”
(And to naysayers who will complain that fair use is thus a subsidy to the high-tech sector paid for by content providers, Lohmann gives an extensive four-part rebuttal.)
It seems likely that the Federal Government of Canada will reintroduce Bill C-32 in the near future. Much has been made of the fact that Canadian copyright law has not been significantly altered since 1997. Rather than implementing measures deemed suitable for 1998, perhaps the government will look forward and position Canada as an early adopter of a proven digital economy catalyst. All that is needed is a little unshackled, innovative thinking.